+91 8617752708

British Journal of Environment and Climate Change, ISSN: 2231-4784,Vol.: 5, Issue.: 3 (July-September)

Original Research Article

Integrating Weather Research and Forecasting Model, Noah Land Surface Model and Urban Canopy Model for Urban Heat Island Effect Assessment


K. I. Morris1*, A. Chan1, S. Aekbal Salleh2, M. C. G. Ooi1, Y. A. Abakr1, M. Y. Oozeer1 and M. Duda3

1Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor, Malaysia.

2Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia.

3National Center for Atmospheric Research NCAR Boulder, CO, USA.


Despite increased interest on the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, there are limited UHI studies on cities built using the green-city concept of Sir Ebenezer Howard [1]. The administrative capital of Malaysia, Putrajaya is one of such cities built using the green-city concept. The objective of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of the green city concept using the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) numerical technique. Numerical mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was coupled with Noah land surface model and a single layer urban canopy model (UCM) to investigate the existence and distribution of UHI, and the behavior of urban canopy layer (2-m) temperature of Putrajaya city. Few studies have been conducted using the NCAR numerical technique (WRF) to explore Malaysian climatology. Suitability of the model employed in studying UHI phenomenon of Putrajaya city was determined using in-situ study of the area, and observational data from AlamSekitar Malaysia SdnBhd (ASMA). Contribution of urban fabrics on the spatial and temporal variations of UHI was also investigated. Comparison with ASMA and in-situ data revealed a satisfactory performance of the model.UHI intensity (UHII) of Putrajaya exhibits a diurnal profile; increasing during the night to a peak value and then diminishing towards morning with a negligible value in the mid-day. In the night time, the UHII ranges from 1.9ºC to 3.1ºC in some of the precincts considered. However, the overall effect of the urbanized areas (local climate zones) on the UHI magnitude was normalized by the total amount of area reserved for vegetation.

Keywords :

Noah LSM/UCM/WRF; Putrajaya; urban heat island; evaluation.

Full Article - PDF    Page 231-253

DOI : 10.9734/BJECC/2015/14923

Review History    Comments

Our Contacts

Guest House Road, Street no - 1/6,
Hooghly, West Bengal,

+91 8617752708


Third Floor, 207 Regent Street
London, W1B 3HH,

+44 20-3031-1429